URL Helpers

Functions for working with URLs.

Contains implementations of functions from urllib.parse that handle bytes and strings.

class werkzeug.urls.BaseURL(scheme: str, netloc: str, path: str, query: str, fragment: str)

Superclass of URL and BytesURL.

property ascii_host

Works exactly like host but will return a result that is restricted to ASCII. If it finds a netloc that is not ASCII it will attempt to idna decode it. This is useful for socket operations when the URL might include internationalized characters.

property auth

The authentication part in the URL if available, None otherwise.

decode_netloc()str

Decodes the netloc part into a string.

decode_query(*args, **kwargs)ds.MultiDict[str, str]

Decodes the query part of the URL. Ths is a shortcut for calling url_decode() on the query argument. The arguments and keyword arguments are forwarded to url_decode() unchanged.

encode_netloc()str

Encodes the netloc part to an ASCII safe URL as bytes.

get_file_location(pathformat: Optional[str] = None)Tuple[Optional[str], Optional[str]]

Returns a tuple with the location of the file in the form (server, location). If the netloc is empty in the URL or points to localhost, it’s represented as None.

The pathformat by default is autodetection but needs to be set when working with URLs of a specific system. The supported values are 'windows' when working with Windows or DOS paths and 'posix' when working with posix paths.

If the URL does not point to a local file, the server and location are both represented as None.

Parameters

pathformat – The expected format of the path component. Currently 'windows' and 'posix' are supported. Defaults to None which is autodetect.

property host

The host part of the URL if available, otherwise None. The host is either the hostname or the IP address mentioned in the URL. It will not contain the port.

join(*args, **kwargs)werkzeug.urls.BaseURL

Joins this URL with another one. This is just a convenience function for calling into url_join() and then parsing the return value again.

property password

The password if it was part of the URL, None otherwise. This undergoes URL decoding and will always be a string.

property port

The port in the URL as an integer if it was present, None otherwise. This does not fill in default ports.

property raw_password

The password if it was part of the URL, None otherwise. Unlike password this one is not being decoded.

property raw_username

The username if it was part of the URL, None otherwise. Unlike username this one is not being decoded.

replace(**kwargs)werkzeug.urls.BaseURL

Return an URL with the same values, except for those parameters given new values by whichever keyword arguments are specified.

to_iri_tuple()werkzeug.urls.BaseURL

Returns a URL tuple that holds a IRI. This will try to decode as much information as possible in the URL without losing information similar to how a web browser does it for the URL bar.

It’s usually more interesting to directly call uri_to_iri() which will return a string.

to_uri_tuple()werkzeug.urls.BaseURL

Returns a BytesURL tuple that holds a URI. This will encode all the information in the URL properly to ASCII using the rules a web browser would follow.

It’s usually more interesting to directly call iri_to_uri() which will return a string.

to_url()str

Returns a URL string or bytes depending on the type of the information stored. This is just a convenience function for calling url_unparse() for this URL.

property username

The username if it was part of the URL, None otherwise. This undergoes URL decoding and will always be a string.

class werkzeug.urls.BytesURL(scheme: str, netloc: str, path: str, query: str, fragment: str)

Represents a parsed URL in bytes.

decode(charset='utf-8', errors='replace')werkzeug.urls.URL

Decodes the URL to a tuple made out of strings. The charset is only being used for the path, query and fragment.

encode_netloc()bytes

Returns the netloc unchanged as bytes.

class werkzeug.urls.Href(base='./', charset='utf-8', sort=False, key=None)

Implements a callable that constructs URLs with the given base. The function can be called with any number of positional and keyword arguments which than are used to assemble the URL. Works with URLs and posix paths.

Positional arguments are appended as individual segments to the path of the URL:

>>> href = Href('/foo')
>>> href('bar', 23)
'/foo/bar/23'
>>> href('foo', bar=23)
'/foo/foo?bar=23'

If any of the arguments (positional or keyword) evaluates to None it will be skipped. If no keyword arguments are given the last argument can be a dict or MultiDict (or any other dict subclass), otherwise the keyword arguments are used for the query parameters, cutting off the first trailing underscore of the parameter name:

>>> href(is_=42)
'/foo?is=42'
>>> href({'foo': 'bar'})
'/foo?foo=bar'

Combining of both methods is not allowed:

>>> href({'foo': 'bar'}, bar=42)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  ...
TypeError: keyword arguments and query-dicts can't be combined

Accessing attributes on the href object creates a new href object with the attribute name as prefix:

>>> bar_href = href.bar
>>> bar_href("blub")
'/foo/bar/blub'

If sort is set to True the items are sorted by key or the default sorting algorithm:

>>> href = Href("/", sort=True)
>>> href(a=1, b=2, c=3)
'/?a=1&b=2&c=3'
Changelog

New in version 0.5: sort and key were added.

class werkzeug.urls.URL(scheme: str, netloc: str, path: str, query: str, fragment: str)

Represents a parsed URL. This behaves like a regular tuple but also has some extra attributes that give further insight into the URL.

encode(charset='utf-8', errors='replace')werkzeug.urls.BytesURL

Encodes the URL to a tuple made out of bytes. The charset is only being used for the path, query and fragment.

werkzeug.urls.iri_to_uri(iri: Union[str, Tuple[str, str, str, str, str]], charset: str = 'utf-8', errors: str = 'strict', safe_conversion: bool = False)str

Convert an IRI to a URI. All non-ASCII and unsafe characters are quoted. If the URL has a domain, it is encoded to Punycode.

>>> iri_to_uri('http://\u2603.net/p\xe5th?q=\xe8ry%DF')
'http://xn--n3h.net/p%C3%A5th?q=%C3%A8ry%DF'
Parameters
  • iri – The IRI to convert.

  • charset – The encoding of the IRI.

  • errors – Error handler to use during bytes.encode.

  • safe_conversion – Return the URL unchanged if it only contains ASCII characters and no whitespace. See the explanation below.

There is a general problem with IRI conversion with some protocols that are in violation of the URI specification. Consider the following two IRIs:

magnet:?xt=uri:whatever
itms-services://?action=download-manifest

After parsing, we don’t know if the scheme requires the //, which is dropped if empty, but conveys different meanings in the final URL if it’s present or not. In this case, you can use safe_conversion, which will return the URL unchanged if it only contains ASCII characters and no whitespace. This can result in a URI with unquoted characters if it was not already quoted correctly, but preserves the URL’s semantics. Werkzeug uses this for the Location header for redirects.

Changelog

Changed in version 0.15: All reserved characters remain unquoted. Previously, only some reserved characters were left unquoted.

Changed in version 0.9.6: The safe_conversion parameter was added.

New in version 0.6.

werkzeug.urls.uri_to_iri(uri: Union[str, Tuple[str, str, str, str, str]], charset: str = 'utf-8', errors: str = 'werkzeug.url_quote')str

Convert a URI to an IRI. All valid UTF-8 characters are unquoted, leaving all reserved and invalid characters quoted. If the URL has a domain, it is decoded from Punycode.

>>> uri_to_iri("http://xn--n3h.net/p%C3%A5th?q=%C3%A8ry%DF")
'http://\u2603.net/p\xe5th?q=\xe8ry%DF'
Parameters
  • uri – The URI to convert.

  • charset – The encoding to encode unquoted bytes with.

  • errors – Error handler to use during bytes.encode. By default, invalid bytes are left quoted.

Changelog

Changed in version 0.15: All reserved and invalid characters remain quoted. Previously, only some reserved characters were preserved, and invalid bytes were replaced instead of left quoted.

New in version 0.6.

werkzeug.urls.url_decode(s: AnyStr, charset: str = 'utf-8', decode_keys: None = None, include_empty: bool = True, errors: str = 'replace', separator: str = '&', cls: Optional[Type[ds.MultiDict]] = None)ds.MultiDict[str, str]

Parse a query string and return it as a MultiDict.

Parameters
  • s – The query string to parse.

  • charset – Decode bytes to string with this charset. If not given, bytes are returned as-is.

  • include_empty – Include keys with empty values in the dict.

  • errors – Error handling behavior when decoding bytes.

  • separator – Separator character between pairs.

  • cls – Container to hold result instead of MultiDict.

Changed in version 2.0: The decode_keys argument is deprecated and will be removed in 2.1.

Changelog

Changed in version 0.5: In previous versions “;” and “&” could be used for url decoding. Now only “&” is supported. If you want to use “;”, a different separator can be provided.

Changed in version 0.5: The cls parameter was added.

werkzeug.urls.url_decode_stream(stream: BinaryIO, charset='utf-8', decode_keys: None = None, include_empty: bool = True, errors: str = 'replace', separator: bytes = b'&', cls: Optional[Type[ds.MultiDict]] = None, limit: Optional[int] = None, return_iterator: bool = False)ds.MultiDict[str, str]

Works like url_decode() but decodes a stream. The behavior of stream and limit follows functions like make_line_iter(). The generator of pairs is directly fed to the cls so you can consume the data while it’s parsed.

Changelog

New in version 0.8.

Parameters
  • stream – a stream with the encoded querystring

  • charset – the charset of the query string. If set to None no decoding will take place.

  • include_empty – Set to False if you don’t want empty values to appear in the dict.

  • errors – the decoding error behavior.

  • separator – the pair separator to be used, defaults to &

  • cls – an optional dict class to use. If this is not specified or None the default MultiDict is used.

  • limit – the content length of the URL data. Not necessary if a limited stream is provided.

  • return_iterator – if set to True the cls argument is ignored and an iterator over all decoded pairs is returned

Changed in version 2.0: The decode_keys argument is deprecated and will be removed in 2.1.

Changelog

New in version 0.8.

werkzeug.urls.url_encode(obj: Union[Mapping[str, str], Iterable[Tuple[str, str]]], charset: str = 'utf-8', encode_keys: None = None, sort: bool = False, key: Optional[Callable[[Tuple[str, str]], Any]] = None, separator: str = '&')str

URL encode a dict/MultiDict. If a value is None it will not appear in the result string. Per default only values are encoded into the target charset strings.

Parameters
  • obj – the object to encode into a query string.

  • charset – the charset of the query string.

  • sort – set to True if you want parameters to be sorted by key.

  • separator – the separator to be used for the pairs.

  • key – an optional function to be used for sorting. For more details check out the sorted() documentation.

Changed in version 2.0: The encode_keys argument is deprecated and will be removed in 2.1.

Changelog

Changed in version 0.5: Added the sort, key, and separator parameters.

werkzeug.urls.url_encode_stream(obj: Union[Mapping[str, str], Iterable[Tuple[str, str]]], stream: Optional[TextIO] = None, charset: str = 'utf-8', encode_keys: None = None, sort: bool = False, key: Optional[Callable[[Tuple[str, str]], Any]] = None, separator: str = '&')None

Like url_encode() but writes the results to a stream object. If the stream is None a generator over all encoded pairs is returned.

Parameters
  • obj – the object to encode into a query string.

  • stream – a stream to write the encoded object into or None if an iterator over the encoded pairs should be returned. In that case the separator argument is ignored.

  • charset – the charset of the query string.

  • sort – set to True if you want parameters to be sorted by key.

  • separator – the separator to be used for the pairs.

  • key – an optional function to be used for sorting. For more details check out the sorted() documentation.

Changed in version 2.0: The encode_keys argument is deprecated and will be removed in 2.1.

Changelog

New in version 0.8.

werkzeug.urls.url_fix(s: str, charset: str = 'utf-8')str

Sometimes you get an URL by a user that just isn’t a real URL because it contains unsafe characters like ‘ ‘ and so on. This function can fix some of the problems in a similar way browsers handle data entered by the user:

>>> url_fix('http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elf (Begriffskl\xe4rung)')
'http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elf%20(Begriffskl%C3%A4rung)'
Parameters
  • s – the string with the URL to fix.

  • charset – The target charset for the URL if the url was given as a string.

werkzeug.urls.url_join(base: Union[str, Tuple[str, str, str, str, str]], url: Union[str, Tuple[str, str, str, str, str]], allow_fragments: bool = True)

Join a base URL and a possibly relative URL to form an absolute interpretation of the latter.

Parameters
  • base – the base URL for the join operation.

  • url – the URL to join.

  • allow_fragments – indicates whether fragments should be allowed.

werkzeug.urls.url_parse(url: str, scheme: Optional[str] = None, allow_fragments: bool = True)werkzeug.urls.BaseURL

Parses a URL from a string into a URL tuple. If the URL is lacking a scheme it can be provided as second argument. Otherwise, it is ignored. Optionally fragments can be stripped from the URL by setting allow_fragments to False.

The inverse of this function is url_unparse().

Parameters
  • url – the URL to parse.

  • scheme – the default schema to use if the URL is schemaless.

  • allow_fragments – if set to False a fragment will be removed from the URL.

werkzeug.urls.url_quote(string: Union[str, bytes], charset: str = 'utf-8', errors: str = 'strict', safe: Union[str, bytes] = '/:', unsafe: Union[str, bytes] = '')str

URL encode a single string with a given encoding.

Parameters
  • s – the string to quote.

  • charset – the charset to be used.

  • safe – an optional sequence of safe characters.

  • unsafe – an optional sequence of unsafe characters.

Changelog

New in version 0.9.2: The unsafe parameter was added.

werkzeug.urls.url_quote_plus(string: str, charset: str = 'utf-8', errors: str = 'strict', safe: str = '')str

URL encode a single string with the given encoding and convert whitespace to “+”.

Parameters
  • s – The string to quote.

  • charset – The charset to be used.

  • safe – An optional sequence of safe characters.

werkzeug.urls.url_unparse(components: Tuple[str, str, str, str, str])str

The reverse operation to url_parse(). This accepts arbitrary as well as URL tuples and returns a URL as a string.

Parameters

components – the parsed URL as tuple which should be converted into a URL string.

werkzeug.urls.url_unquote(s: Union[str, bytes], charset: str = 'utf-8', errors: str = 'replace', unsafe: str = '')str

URL decode a single string with a given encoding. If the charset is set to None no decoding is performed and raw bytes are returned.

Parameters
  • s – the string to unquote.

  • charset – the charset of the query string. If set to None no decoding will take place.

  • errors – the error handling for the charset decoding.

werkzeug.urls.url_unquote_plus(s: Union[str, bytes], charset: str = 'utf-8', errors: str = 'replace')str

URL decode a single string with the given charset and decode “+” to whitespace.

Per default encoding errors are ignored. If you want a different behavior you can set errors to 'replace' or 'strict'.

Parameters
  • s – The string to unquote.

  • charset – the charset of the query string. If set to None no decoding will take place.

  • errors – The error handling for the charset decoding.