Drop support for Python 2 and 3.5. #1693
JSONMixinno longer uses simplejson if it’s installed. To use another JSON module, override
When passing a
Headersobject to a test client method or
EnvironBuilder, multiple values for a key are joined into one comma separated value. This matches the HTTP spec on multi-value headers. #1655
responsekwarg, consistent with other HTTP errors. #1748
The response generated by
WWW-Authenticateheader per value in
www_authenticate, rather than joining them into a single value, to improve interoperability with browsers and other clients. #1755
Make the argument to
Only allow a single access control allow origin value. #1723
Fix crash when trying to parse a non-existent Content Security Policy header. #1731
http_datezero fills years < 1000 to always output four digits. #1739
Fix missing local variables in interactive debugger console. #1746
Fix passing file-like objects like
Drop support for Python 3.4. (#1478)
Remove code that issued deprecation warnings in version 0.15. (#1477)
Remove most top-level attributes provided by the
werkzeugmodule in favor of direct imports. For example, instead of
import werkzeug; werkzeug.url_quote, do
from werkzeug.urls import url_quote. Install version 0.16 first to see deprecation warnings while upgrading. #2, #1640
utils.invalidate_cached_property()to invalidate cached properties. (#1474)
Directive keys for the
Set-Cookieresponse header are not ignored when parsing the
Cookierequest header. This allows cookies with names such as “expires” and “version”. (#1495)
Request cookies are parsed into a
MultiDictto capture all values for cookies with the same key.
cookies[key]returns the first value rather than the last. Use
cookies.getlist(key)to get all values.
parse_cookiealso defaults to a
MultiDict. #1562, #1458
charset=utf-8to an HTTP exception response’s
The user agent for Opera 60 on Mac is correctly reported as “opera” instead of “chrome”. #1556
The platform for Crosswalk on Android is correctly reported as “android” instead of “chromeos”. (#1572)
Issue a warning when the current server name does not match the configured server name. #760
A configured server name with the default port for a scheme will match the current server name without the port if the current scheme matches. #1584
Headers are tested for equality independent of the header key case, such that
X-Foois the same as
Support the Content Security Policy header through the Response.content_security_policy data structure. #1617
If the development server is started with an
SSLContextconfigured to verify client certificates, the certificate in PEM format will be available as
is_resource_modifiedwill run for methods other than
HEAD, rather than always returning
SharedDataMiddlewarereturns 404 rather than 500 when trying to access a directory instead of a file with the package loader. The dependency on setuptools and pkg_resources is removed. #1599
response.cache_control.immutableflag. Keep in mind that browser support for this
Cache-Controlheader option is still experimental and may not be implemented. #1185
Optional request log highlighting with the development server is handled by Click instead of termcolor. #1235
Optional ad-hoc TLS support for the development server is handled by cryptography instead of pyOpenSSL. #1555
The debugger security pin is unique in containers managed by Podman. #1661
Building a URL when
host_matchingis enabled takes into account the current host when there are duplicate endpoints with different hosts. #488
503 ServiceUnavailableHTTP exceptions takes a
retry_afterparameter to set the
Add HTTP 103, 208, 306, 425, 506, 508, and 511 to the list of status codes. #1678
The development server accepts paths that start with two slashes, rather than stripping off the first path segment. #491
Add access control (Cross Origin Request Sharing, CORS) header properties to the
Acceptvalues are no longer ordered alphabetically for equal quality tags. Instead the initial order is preserved. #1686
Map.lock_classattribute for alternative implementations. #1702
Support matching and building WebSocket rules in the routing system, for use by async frameworks. #1709
application/octet-stream. If a filename looks like a text mimetype, the
utf-8charset is added to it. This matches the behavior of
Deprecate most top-level attributes provided by the
werkzeugmodule in favor of direct imports. The deprecated imports will be removed in version 1.0.
For example, instead of
import werkzeug; werkzeug.url_quote, do
from werkzeug.urls import url_quote. A deprecation warning will show the correct import to use.
werkzeug.routingshould also be imported instead of accessed, but for technical reasons can’t show a warning.
Work around a bug in pip that caused the reloader to fail on Windows when the script was an entry point. This fixes the issue with Flask’s flask run command failing with “No module named Scriptsflask”. #1614
X-Forwarded-Protoheader by default. #1630
x_hostto match 0.14 behavior. This is intended to make intermediate upgrades less disruptive, but the argument will still be removed in 1.0. #1630
TypeErrordue to changes to
ast.Modulein Python 3.8. #1551
Fix a C assertion failure in debug builds of some Python 2.7 releases. #1553
KeyErrormessage to the description if
e.show_exceptionis set to
True. This is a more secure default than the original 0.15.0 behavior and makes it easier to control without losing information. #1592
Upgrade the debugger to jQuery 3.4.1. #1581
Work around an issue in some external debuggers that caused the reloader to fail. #1607
Work around an issue where the reloader couldn’t introspect a setuptools script installed as an egg. #1600
The reloader will use
sys.executableeven if the script is marked executable, reverting a behavior intended for NixOS introduced in 0.15. The reloader should no longer cause
OSError: [Errno 8] Exec format error. #1482, #1580
SharedDataMiddlewaresafely handles paths with Windows drive names. #1589
Properly handle multi-line header folding in development server in Python 2.7. (#1080)
The default URL converter correctly encodes bytes to string rather than representing them with
The debugger detects cycles in chained exceptions and does not time out in that case. (#1536)
When running the development server in Docker, the debugger security pin is now unique per container.
Rulecode generation uses a filename that coverage will ignore. The previous value, “generated”, was causing coverage to fail. (#1487)
The test client removes the cookie header if there are no persisted cookies. This fixes an issue introduced in 0.15.0 where the cookies from the original request were used for redirects, causing functions such as logout to fail. (#1491)
The test client copies the environ before passing it to the app, to prevent in-place modifications from affecting redirect requests. (#1498)
"werkzeug"logger only adds a handler if there is no handler configured for its level in the logging chain. This avoids double logging if other code configures logging first. (#1492)
RequestRedirectcode from 301 to 308, preserving the verb and request body (form data) during redirect. (#1342)
floatconverters in URL rules will handle negative values if passed the
signed=Trueparameter. For example,
412 responses once again include entity headers and an error message in the body. They were originally omitted when implementing
If-Match(#1233), but the spec doesn’t seem to disallow it. (#1231, #1255)
The Content-Length header is removed for 1xx and 204 responses. This fixes a previous change where no body would be sent, but the header would still be present. The new behavior matches RFC 7230. (#1294)
uri_to_iri()does not unquote ASCII characters in the unreserved class, such as space, and leaves invalid bytes quoted when decoding.
iri_to_uri()does not quote reserved characters. See RFC 3987 for these character classes. (#1433)
get_content_typeappends a charset for any mimetype that ends with
+xml, not just those that start with
application/. Known text types such as
werkzeug.securitymodule, remove outdated hashlib support. (#1282)
closeon the wrapped iterable, not the internal iterator. This doesn’t affect objects where
self. For other objects, the method was not called before. (#1259, #1260)
FileStoragelooks up attributes on
stream._fileif they don’t exist on
stream, working around an issue where
tempfile.SpooledTemporaryFile()didn’t implement all of
io.IOBase. See https://github.com/python/cpython/pull/3249. (#1409)
The version of jQuery used by the debugger is updated to 3.3.1. (#1390)
The debugger correctly renders long
The debugger can serve resources when Werkzeug is installed as a zip file.
The debugger and server log support Python 3’s chained exceptions. (#1396)
The interactive debugger highlights frames that come from user code to make them easy to pick out in a long stack trace. Note that if an env was created with virtualenv instead of venv, the debugger may incorrectly classify some frames. (#1421)
Clicking the error message at the top of the interactive debugger will jump down to the bottom of the traceback. (#1422)
When generating a PIN, the debugger will ignore a
KeyErrorraised when the current UID doesn’t have an associated username, which can happen in Docker. (#1471)
KeyErrormessage to the description, making it clearer what caused the 400 error. Frameworks like Flask can omit this information in production by setting
e.args = (). (#1395)
Triggering a reload while using a tool such as PDB no longer hides input. (#1318)
The reloader will not prepend the Python executable to the command line if the Python file is marked executable. This allows the reloader to work on NixOS. (#1242)
Fix an issue where
sys.pathwould change between reloads when running with
python -m app. The reloader can detect that a module was run with “-m” and reconstructs that instead of the file path in
sys.argvwhen reloading. (#1416)
IPPROTO_TCPconstant instead of
SOL_TCPfor Jython compatibility. (#1375)
The development server logs the unquoted IRI rather than the raw request line, to make it easier to work with Unicode in request paths during development. (#1115)
The development server recognizes
ConnectionErroron Python 3 to silence client disconnects, and does not silence other
OSErrorsthat may have been raised inside the application. (#1418)
The environ keys
RAW_URIcontain the raw path before it was percent-decoded. This is non-standard, but many WSGI servers add them. Middleware could replace
PATH_INFOwith this to route based on the raw value. (#1419)
CONTENT_LENGTHin the environ if they aren’t set. Previously these used default values if they weren’t set. Now it’s possible to distinguish between empty and unset values. (#1308)
The test client raises a
ValueErrorif a query string argument would overwrite a query string in the path. (#1338)
The redirect environ is copied from the initial request environ.
Script root and path are correctly distinguished when redirecting to a path under the root.
The HEAD method is not changed to GET.
307 and 308 codes preserve the method and body. All others ignore the body and related headers.
Headers are passed to the new request for all codes, following what browsers do.
test.EnvironBuildersets the content type and length headers in addition to the WSGI keys when detecting them from the data.
Intermediate response bodies are iterated over even when
buffered=Falseto ensure iterator middleware can run cleanup code safely. Only the last response is not buffered. (#988)
wsgi.get_input_stream()no longer share a global
_empty_streaminstance. This improves test isolation by preventing cases where closing the stream in one request would affect other usages. (#1340)
CGIRootFixno longer modifies
PATH_INFOfor very old versions of Lighttpd.
LighttpdCGIRootFixwas renamed to
CGIRootFixin 0.9. Both are deprecated and will be removed in version 1.0. (#1141)
The contrib modules are deprecated and will either be moved into
werkzeugcore or removed completely in version 1.0. Some modules that already issued deprecation warnings have been removed. Be sure to run or test your code with
python -W default::DeprecationWarningto catch any deprecated code you’re using. (#4)
LintMiddlewarehas moved to
ProfilerMiddlewarehas moved to
ProxyFixhas moved to
JSONRequestMixinhas moved to
cachehas been extracted into a separate project, cachelib. The version in Werkzeug is deprecated.
sessionshave been extracted into a separate project, secure-cookie. The version in Werkzeug is deprecated.
ProxyFix, is deprecated.
JSONMixin, is deprecated.
atomis deprecated. This did not fit in with the rest of Werkzeug, and is better served by a dedicated library in the community.
jsroutingis removed. Set URLs when rendering templates or JSON responses instead.
limiteris removed. Its specific use is handled by Werkzeug directly, but stream limiting is better handled by the WSGI server in general.
testtoolsis removed. It did not offer significant benefit over the default test client.
ProxyFixis refactored to support more headers, multiple values, and more secure configuration.
Each header supports multiple values. The trusted number of proxies is configured separately for each header. The
num_proxiesargument is deprecated. (#1314)
The original WSGI environment values are stored in the
werkzeug.proxy_fix.origkey, a dict. The individual keys
werkzeug.wsgihas moved to separate modules under
werkzeug.middleware, along with the middleware moved from
werkzeug.contrib. The old
werkzeug.wsgiimports are deprecated and will be removed in version 1.0. (#1452)
werkzeug.wsgi.DispatcherMiddlewarehas moved to
werkzeug.wsgi.ProxyMiddlewareas moved to
werkzeug.wsgi.SharedDataMiddlewarehas moved to
werkzeug.wrappersmodule has been converted to a package, and its various classes have been organized into separate modules. Any previously documented classes, understood to be the existing public API, are still importable from
werkzeug.wrappers, or may be imported from their specific modules. (#1456)
Released on December 31st 2017
Resolved a regression with status code handling in the integrated development server.
Released on December 31st 2017
HTTP exceptions are now automatically caught by
Added support for edge as browser.
Added support for platforms that lack
Add support for etag handling through if-match
Added support for the SameSite cookie attribute.
get_multion cache clients now returns lists all the time.
Improved the watchdog observer shutdown for the reloader to not crash on exit on older Python versions.
Added support for
filename*filename attributes according to RFC 2231
Resolved an issue where machine ID for the reloader PIN was not read accurately on windows.
Added a workaround for syntax errors in init files in the reloader.
Added support for using the reloader with console scripts on windows.
The built-in HTTP server will no longer close a connection in cases where no HTTP body is expected (204, 204, HEAD requests etc.)
EnvironHeadersobject now skips over empty content type and lengths if they are set to falsy values.
Werkzeug will no longer send the content-length header on 1xx or 204/304 responses.
Cookie values are now also permitted to include slashes and equal signs without quoting.
Relaxed the regex for the routing converter arguments.
If cookies are sent without values they are now assumed to have an empty value and the parser accepts this. Previously this could have corrupted cookies that followed the value.
EnvironBuildernow support mimetypes like the request object does.
Added support for static weights in URL rules.
Better handle some more complex reloader scenarios where sys.path contained non directory paths.
EnvironHeadersno longer raises weird errors if non string keys are passed to it.
Released on December 7th 2017
Deprecate support for Python 2.6 and 3.3. CI tests will not run for these versions, and support will be dropped completely in the next version. (pallets/meta#24)
TypeErrorwhen port is not an integer. (#1088)
response.ageis parsed as a
timedelta. Previously, it was incorrectly treated as a
datetime. The header value is an integer number of seconds, not a date string. (#414)
Fix a bug in
TypeConversionDictwhere errors are not propagated when using the converter. (#1102)
Authorization.qopis a string instead of a set, to comply with RFC 2617. (#984)
An exception is raised when an encoded cookie is larger than, by default, 4093 bytes. Browsers may silently ignore cookies larger than this.
BaseResponsehas a new attribute
dump_cookiehas a new argument
max_sizeto configure this. (#780, #1109)
Fix a TypeError in
BaseResponse.calculate_content_lengthnow correctly works for Unicode responses on Python 3. It first encodes using
Secure cookie contrib works with string secret key on Python 3. (#1205)
Shared data middleware accepts a list instead of a dict of static locations to preserve lookup order. (#1197)
HTTP header values without encoding can contain single quotes. (#1208)
The built-in dev server supports receiving requests with chunked transfer encoding. (#1198)
Released on May 16 2017
Fix regression: Pull request
#892prevented Werkzeug from correctly logging the IP of a remote client behind a reverse proxy, even when using ProxyFix.
Fix a bug in safe_join on Windows.
Released on March 15th 2017
Fix crash of reloader (used on debug mode) on Windows. (OSError: [WinError 10038]). See pull request
Partially revert change to class hierarchy of Headers. See
Released on March 10th 2017
Spit out big deprecation warnings for werkzeug.script
Use inspect.getfullargspec internally when available as inspect.getargspec is gone in 3.6
Added support for status code 451 and 423
Improved the build error suggestions. In particular only if someone stringifies the error will the suggestions be calculated.
Added support for uWSGI’s caching backend.
Fix a bug where iterating over a FileStorage would result in an infinite loop.
Datastructures now inherit from the relevant baseclasses from the collections module in the stdlib. See #794.
Add support for recognizing NetBSD, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, DragonFlyBSD platforms in the user agent string.
Recognize SeaMonkey browser name and version correctly
Recognize Baiduspider, and bingbot user agents
If LocalProxy’s wrapped object is a function, refer to it with __wrapped__ attribute.
The defaults of
generate_password_hashhave been changed to more secure ones, see pull request
Add support for encoding in options header parsing, see pull request
test.Clientnow properly handles Location headers with relative URLs, see pull request
When HTTPException is raised, it now prints the description, for easier debugging.
Werkzeug’s dict-like datastructures now have
view-methods under Python 2, see pull request
Fix a bug in
stream_factorywas provided during initialization, see pull request
Disable autocorrect and spellchecker in the debugger middleware’s Python prompt, see pull request
Don’t redirect to slash route when method doesn’t match, see pull request
Fix a bug when using
SharedDataMiddlewarewith frozen packages, see pull request
Range header parsing function fixed for invalid values
Add support for byte Range Requests, see pull request
Use modern cryptographic defaults in the dev servers
the post() method of the test client now accept file object through the data parameter.
Color run_simple’s terminal output based on HTTP codes
Fix self-XSS in debugger console, see
Fix IPython 5.x shell support, see
Change Accept datastructure to sort by specificity first, allowing for more accurate results when using
best_matchfor mime types (for example in
werkzeug.serving: set CONTENT_TYPE / CONTENT_LENGTH if only they’re provided by the client
werkzeug.serving: Fix crash of reloader when using python -m werkzeug.serving.
Released on December 30th 2016.
Bugfix for the bugfix in the previous release.
Released on December 30th 2016.
Check if platform can fork before importing
ForkingMixIn, raise exception when creating
ForkingWSGIServeron such a platform, see PR
Released on December 26th 2016.
Correct fix for the reloader issuer on certain Windows installations.
Released on December 26th 2016.
Fix more bugs in multidicts regarding empty lists. See
Add some docstrings to some EnvironBuilder properties that were previously unintentionally missing.
Added a workaround for the reloader on windows.
Released on August 31st 2016.
Fix JSONRequestMixin for Python3. See #731
Fix broken string handling in test client when passing integers. See #852
Fix a bug in
parse_options_headerwhere an invalid content type starting with comma or semi-colon would result in an invalid return value, see issue
Fix a bug in multidicts when passing empty lists as values, see issue
Fix a security issue that allows XSS on the Werkzeug debugger. See
Released on May 24th 2016.
Fixed a bug that occurs when running on Python 2.6 and using a broken locale. See pull request #912.
Fixed a crash when running the debugger on Google App Engine. See issue #925.
Fixed an issue with multipart parsing that could cause memory exhaustion.
Released on April 24th 2016.
Corrected an issue that caused the debugger not to use the machine GUID on POSIX systems.
Corrected a Unicode error on Python 3 for the debugger’s PIN usage.
Corrected the timestamp verification in the pin debug code. Without this fix the pin was remembered for too long.
Released on April 15th 2016.
fixed a problem with the machine GUID detection code on OS X on Python 3.
Released on April 14th 2016.
fixed a regression on Python 3 for the debugger.
Released on April 14th 2016.
werkzeug.serving: Still show the client address on bad requests.
improved the PIN based protection for the debugger to make it harder to brute force via trying cookies. Please keep in mind that the debugger is not intended for running on production environments
increased the pin timeout to a week to make it less annoying for people which should decrease the chance that users disable the pin check entirely.
werkzeug.serving: Fix broken HTTP_HOST when path starts with double slash.
Released on March 22nd 2016.
werkzeug.serving: Fix crash when attempting SSL connection to HTTP server.
Released on February 14th 2016.
Fixed werkzeug.serving not working from -m flag.
Fixed incorrect weak etag handling.
Released on December 20th 2015.
Fixed an issue with copy operations not working against proxies.
Changed the logging operations of the development server to correctly log where the server is running in all situations again.
Fixed another regression with SSL wrapping similar to the fix in 0.11.2 but for a different code path.
Released on November 12th 2015.
Fix inheritable sockets on Windows on Python 3.
Fixed an issue with the forking server not starting any longer.
Fixed SSL wrapping on platforms that supported opening sockets by file descriptor.
No longer log from the watchdog reloader.
Unicode errors in hosts are now better caught or converted into bad request errors.
Released on November 10th 2015.
Fixed a regression on Python 3 in the debugger.
Released on November 8th 2015, codename Gleisbaumaschine.
run_simpleand other functions in
werkzeug.serving. This allows the user to completely override the Python module watching of Werkzeug with custom paths.
Many custom cached properties of Werkzeug’s classes are now subclasses of Python’s
bind_to_environnow doesn’t differentiate between implicit and explicit default port numbers in
BuildErrorsare now more informative. They come with a complete sentence as error message, and also provide suggestions (pull request
Fix a bug in the user agent parser where Safari’s build number instead of version would be extracted (pull request
Fixed issue where RedisCache set_many was broken for twemproxy, which doesn’t support the default MULTI command (pull request
mimetypeparameters on request and response classes are now always converted to lowercase.
Changed cache so that cache never expires if timeout is 0. This also fixes an issue with redis setex (issue
Werkzeug now assumes
UTF-8as filesystem encoding on Unix if Python detected it as ASCII.
New optional has method on caches.
Fixed various bugs in parse_options_header (pull request
If the reloader is enabled the server will now open the socket in the parent process if this is possible. This means that when the reloader kicks in the connection from client will wait instead of tearing down. This does not work on all Python versions.
Implemented PIN based authentication for the debugger. This can optionally be disabled but is discouraged. This change was necessary as it has been discovered that too many people run the debugger in production.
Devserver no longer requires SSL module to be installed.
(bugfix release, release date yet to be decided)
Reloader: Correctly detect file changes made by moving temporary files over the original, which is e.g. the case with PyCharm (pull request
Fix bool behavior of
werkzeug.datastructures.ETagsunder Python 3 (issue
(bugfix release, released on March 26th 2015)
Re-release of 0.10.3 with packaging artifacts manually removed.
(bugfix release, released on March 26th 2015)
Re-release of 0.10.2 without packaging artifacts.
(bugfix release, released on March 26th 2015)
Fixed issue where
emptycould break third-party libraries that relied on keyword arguments (pull request
Rule.emptyby providing a
`get_empty_kwargsto allow setting custom kwargs without having to override entire
emptymethod. (pull request
`extra_files`parameter for reloader to not cause startup to crash when included in server params
Using MultiDict when building URLs is now not supported again. The behavior introduced several regressions.
Fix performance problems with stat-reloader (pull request
(bugfix release, released on February 3rd 2015)
Fixed regression with multiple query values for URLs (pull request
Fix issues with eventlet’s monkeypatching and the builtin server (pull request
Released on January 30th 2015, codename Bagger.
Changed the error handling of and improved testsuite for the caches in
Fixed a bug on Python 3 when creating adhoc ssl contexts, due to sys.maxint not being defined.
Fixed a bug on Python 3, that caused
make_ssl_devcert()to fail with an exception.
Added exceptions for 504 and 505.
Added support for ChromeOS detection.
Added UUID converter to the routing system.
Added message that explains how to quit the server.
Fixed a bug on Python 2, that caused
Added support for stdlib pbkdf2 hmac if a compatible digest is found.
Ported testsuite to use
Minor optimizations to various middlewares (pull requests
sslmodule instead of
OpenSSLfor the builtin server (issue
#434). This means that OpenSSL contexts are not supported anymore, but instead
ssl.SSLContextfrom the stdlib.
Allow protocol-relative URLs when building external URLs.
Fixed Atom syndication to print time zone offset for tz-aware datetime objects (pull request
Improved reloader to track added files and to recover from broken sys.modules setups with syntax errors in packages.
cache.RedisCachenow supports arbitrary
**kwargsfor the redis object.
werkzeug.test.Clientnow uses the original request method when resolving 307 redirects (pull request
werkzeug.datastructures.MIMEAcceptnow properly deals with mimetype parameters (pull request
werkzeug.datastructures.Acceptnow handles a quality of
0as intolerable, as per RFC 2616 (pull request
werkzeug.urls.url_fixnow properly encodes hostnames with
#559). It also doesn’t crash on malformed URLs anymore (issue
werkzeug.routing.MapAdapter.matchnow recognizes the difference between the path
/and an empty one (issue
The interactive debugger now tries to decode non-ascii filenames (issue
Increased default key size of generated SSL certificates to 1024 bits (issue
Added support for specifying a
Responsesubclass to use when calling
werkzeug.test.EnvironBuildernow doesn’t use the request method anymore to guess the content type, and purely relies on the
Added Symbian to the user agent platform list.
Fixed make_conditional to respect automatically_set_content_length
Content-Lengthwhen writing to response.stream (issue
wrappers.Request.methodis now always uppercase, eliminating inconsistencies of the WSGI environment (issue
routing.Rule.emptynow works correctly with subclasses of
Made map updating safe in light of concurrent updates.
Allow multiple values for the same field for url building (issue
(bugfix release, release date to be decided)
Fix unicode problems in
Fix Python 3-compatibility problems in
Backport fix of fatal typo for
Make creation of the cache dir for
Use native strings for memcached keys to work with Python 3 client (issue
Fix charset detection for
Explicitly shut down server (issue
Fix timeouts greater than 2592000 being misinterpreted as UNIX timestamps in
Fix bug where
werkzeug.exceptions.abortwould raise an arbitrary subclass of the expected class (issue
jsrouting(due to removal of
werkzeug.urls.url_fixnow doesn’t crash on malformed URLs anymore, but returns them unmodified. This is a cheap workaround for
#582, the proper fix is included in version 0.10.
The repr of
werkzeug.wrappers.Requestdoesn’t crash on non-ASCII-values anymore (pull request
Fix bug in
cache.RedisCachewhen combined with
redis.StrictRedisobject (pull request
WWW-Authenticateheaders is now always quoted, as required by RFC 2617 (issue
Fix bug in
werkzeug.contrib.cache.SimpleCachewith Python 3 where add/set may throw an exception when pruning old entries from the cache (pull request
(bugfix release, released on June 7th 2014)
Added a safe conversion for IRI to URI conversion and use that internally to work around issues with spec violations for protocols such as
Fixed uri_to_iri() not re-encoding hashes in query string parameters.
(bugfix release, released on June 7th 2014)
Forward charset argument from request objects to the environ builder.
Fixed error handling for missing boundaries in multipart data.
Fixed session creation on systems without
Fixed pluses in dictionary keys not being properly URL encoded.
Fixed a problem with deepcopy not working for multi dicts.
Fixed a double quoting issue on redirects.
Fixed a problem with unicode keys appearing in headers on 2.x.
Fixed a bug with unicode strings in the test builder.
Fixed a unicode bug on Python 3 in the WSGI profiler.
Fixed an issue with the safe string compare function on Python 2.7.7 and Python 3.4.
(bugfix release, released on August 26th 2013)
Fixed an issue with Python 3.3 and an edge case in cookie parsing.
Fixed decoding errors not handled properly through the WSGI decoding dance.
Fixed URI to IRI conversion incorrectly decoding percent signs.
(bugfix release, released on July 25th 2013)
Restored behavior of the
datadescriptor of the request class to pre 0.9 behavior. This now also means that
.get_data()have different behavior. New code should use
In addition to that there is now a flag for the
.get_data()method that controls what should happen with form data parsing and the form parser will honor cached data. This makes dealing with custom form data more consistent.
(bugfix release, released on July 18th 2013)
Added unsafe parameter to
Fixed an issue with
url_quote_plus()not quoting ‘+’ correctly.
Ported remaining parts of
RedisCacheto Python 3.3.
Ported remaining parts of
MemcachedCacheto Python 3.3
Fixed a deprecation warning in the contrib atom module.
Fixed a regression with setting of content types through the headers dictionary instead with the content type parameter.
Use correct name for stdlib secure string comparison function.
Fixed a wrong reference in the docstring of
Fixed an AttributeError that sometimes occurred when accessing the
(bugfix release, released on June 14th 2013)
Fixed an issue with integers no longer being accepted in certain parts of the routing system or URL quoting functions.
Fixed an issue with url_quote not producing the right escape codes for single digit codepoints.
Fixed an issue with
SharedDataMiddlewarenot reading the path correctly and breaking on etag generation in some cases.
Properly handle Expect: 100-continue in the development server to resolve issues with curl.
Automatically exhaust the input stream on request close. This should fix issues where not touching request files results in a timeout.
Fixed exhausting of streams not doing anything if a non-limited stream was passed into the multipart parser.
Raised the buffer sizes for the multipart parser.
Released on June 13nd 2013, codename Planierraupe.
Added support for
tell()on the limited stream.
ETagsnow is nonzero if it contains at least one etag of any kind, including weak ones.
Added a workaround for a bug in the stdlib for SSL servers.
Improved SSL interface of the devserver so that it can generate certificates easily and load them from files.
Refactored test client to invoke the open method on the class for redirects. This makes subclassing more powerful.
URL generation by the routing system now no longer quotes
URL fixing now no longer quotes certain reserved characters.
werkzeug.security.generate_password_hash()and check functions now support any of the hashlib algorithms.
wsgi.get_current_url is now ascii safe for browsers sending non-ascii data in query strings.
improved parsing behavior for
added more operators to local proxies.
added a hook to override the default converter in the routing system.
The description field of HTTP exceptions is now always escaped. Use markup objects to disable that.
Added number of proxy argument to the proxy fix to make it more secure out of the box on common proxy setups. It will by default no longer trust the x-forwarded-for header as much as it did before.
Added support for fragment handling in URI/IRI functions.
Added custom class support for
Renamed LighttpdCGIRootFix to CGIRootFix.
Always treat + as safe when fixing URLs as people love misusing them.
Added support to profiling into directories in the contrib profiler.
The escape function now by default escapes quotes.
Changed repr of exceptions to be less magical.
Simplified exception interface to no longer require environments to be passed to receive the response object.
Added sentinel argument to IterIO objects.
Added pbkdf2 support for the security module.
Added a plain request type that disables all form parsing to only leave the stream behind.
Removed support for deprecated fix_headers.
Removed support for deprecated header_list.
Removed support for deprecated parameter for iter_encoded.
Removed support for deprecated non-silent usage of the limited stream object.
Removed support for previous dummy writable parameter on the cached property.
Added support for explicitly closing request objects to close associated resources.
Conditional request handling or access to the data property on responses no longer ignores direct passthrough mode.
Removed werkzeug.templates and werkzeug.contrib.kickstart.
Changed host lookup logic for forwarded hosts to allow lists of hosts in which case only the first one is picked up.
Added wsgi.get_query_string, wsgi.get_path_info and wsgi.get_script_name and made the wsgi.pop_path_info and wsgi.peek_path_info functions perform unicode decoding. This was necessary to avoid having to expose the WSGI encoding dance on Python 3.
Added content_encoding and content_md5 to the request object’s common request descriptor mixin.
added options and trace to the test client.
Overhauled the utilization of the input stream to be easier to use and better to extend. The detection of content payload on the input side is now more compliant with HTTP by detecting off the content type header instead of the request method. This also now means that the stream property on the request class is always available instead of just when the parsing fails.
Added support for using
werkzeug.wrappers.BaseResponsein a with statement.
Changed get_app_iter to fetch the response early so that it does not fail when wrapping a response iterable. This makes filtering easier.
Introduced get_data and set_data methods for responses.
Introduced get_data for requests.
Soft deprecated the data descriptors for request and response objects.
Added as_bytes operations to some of the headers to simplify working with things like cookies.
Made the debugger paste tracebacks into github’s gist service as private pastes.
(bugfix release, release date to be announced)
Added a favicon to the debugger which fixes problem with state changes being triggered through a request to /favicon.ico in Google Chrome. This should fix some problems with Flask and other frameworks that use context local objects on a stack with context preservation on errors.
Fixed an issue with scrolling up in the debugger.
Fixed an issue with debuggers running on a different URL than the URL root.
Fixed a problem with proxies not forwarding some rarely used special methods properly.
Added a workaround to prevent the XSS protection from Chrome breaking the debugger.
Skip redis tests if redis is not running.
Fixed a typo in the multipart parser that caused content-type to not be picked up properly.
(bugfix release, released on February 5th 2012)
Fixed another issue with
werkzeug.wsgi.make_line_iter()where lines longer than the buffer size were not handled properly.
Restore stdout after debug console finished executing so that the debugger can be used on GAE better.
Fixed a bug with the redis cache for int subclasses (affects bool caching).
Fixed an XSS problem with redirect targets coming from untrusted sources.
Redis cache backend now supports password authentication.
(bugfix release, released on December 16th 2011)
Fixed a problem with request handling of the builtin server not responding to socket errors properly.
The routing request redirect exception’s code attribute is now used properly.
Fixed a bug with shutdowns on Windows.
Fixed a few unicode issues with non-ascii characters being hardcoded in URL rules.
Fixed two property docstrings being assigned to fdel instead of
Fixed an issue where CRLF line endings could be split into two by the line iter function, causing problems with multipart file uploads.
(bugfix release, released on September 30th 2011)
Fixed an issue with the memcache not working properly.
Fixed an issue for Python 2.7.1 and higher that broke copying of multidicts with
Changed hashing methodology of immutable ordered multi dicts for a potential problem with alternative Python implementations.
Released on September 29th 2011, codename Lötkolben
Removed data structure specific KeyErrors for a general purpose
The routing system now also accepts strings instead of dictionaries for the query_args parameter since we’re only passing them through for redirects.
Werkzeug now automatically sets the content length immediately when the
dataattribute is set for efficiency and simplicity reasons.
The routing system will now normalize server names to lowercase.
The routing system will no longer raise ValueErrors in case the configuration for the server name was incorrect. This should make deployment much easier because you can ignore that factor now.
Fixed a bug with parsing HTTP digest headers. It rejected headers with missing nc and nonce params.
Proxy fix now also updates wsgi.url_scheme based on X-Forwarded-Proto.
Added support for key prefixes to the redis cache.
Added the ability to suppress some auto corrections in the wrappers that are now controlled via autocorrect_location_header and automatically_set_content_length on the response objects.
Werkzeug now uses a new method to check that the length of incoming data is complete and will raise IO errors by itself if the server fails to do so.
make_line_iter()now requires a limit that is not higher than the length the stream can provide.
Refactored form parsing into a form parser class that makes it possible to hook into individual parts of the parsing process for debugging and extending.
For conditional responses the content length is no longer set when it is already there and added if missing.
Immutable datastructures are hashable now.
Headers datastructure no longer allows newlines in values to avoid header injection attacks.
Made it possible through subclassing to select a different remote addr in the proxy fix.
Added stream based URL decoding. This reduces memory usage on large transmitted form data that is URL decoded since Werkzeug will no longer load all the unparsed data into memory.
Memcache client now no longer uses the buggy cmemcache module and supports pylibmc. GAE is not tried automatically and the dedicated class is no longer necessary.
Redis cache now properly serializes data.
Removed support for Python 2.4
(bugfix release, released on September 30th 2011)
Fixed a CSRF problem with the debugger.
The debugger is now generating private pastes on lodgeit.
If URL maps are now bound to environments the query arguments are properly decoded from it for redirects.
(bugfix release, released on July 26th 2011)
Fixed a problem with newer versions of IPython.
Disabled pyinotify based reloader which does not work reliably.
Released on July 24th 2011, codename Schraubschlüssel
Add support for python-libmemcached to the Werkzeug cache abstraction layer.
Fixed an issue where the SharedDataMiddleware could cause an internal server error on weird paths when loading via pkg_resources.
Fixed an URL generation bug that caused URLs to be invalid if a generated component contains a colon.
werkzeug.import_string()now works with partially set up packages properly.
Disabled automatic socket switching for IPv6 on the development server due to problems it caused.
Werkzeug no longer overrides the Date header when creating a conditional HTTP response.
The routing system provides a method to retrieve the matching methods for a given path.
The routing system now accepts a parameter to change the encoding error behaviour.
The local manager can now accept custom ident functions in the constructor that are forwarded to the wrapped local objects.
url_unquote_plus now accepts unicode strings again.
Fixed an issue with the filesystem session support’s prune function and concurrent usage.
Fixed a problem with external URL generation discarding the port.
Added support for pylibmc to the Werkzeug cache abstraction layer.
Fixed an issue with the new multipart parser that happened when a linebreak happened to be on the chunk limit.
Cookies are now set properly if ports are in use. A runtime error is raised if one tries to set a cookie for a domain without a dot.
Fixed an issue with Template.from_file not working for file descriptors.
Reloader can now use inotify to track reloads. This requires the pyinotify library to be installed.
Werkzeug debugger can now submit to custom lodgeit installations.
redirect function’s status code assertion now allows 201 to be used as redirection code. While it’s not a real redirect, it shares enough with redirects for the function to still be useful.
Fixed securecookie for pypy.
Fixed ValueErrors being raised on calls to best_match on MIMEAccept objects when invalid user data was supplied.
Deprecated werkzeug.contrib.kickstart and werkzeug.contrib.testtools
URL routing now can be passed the URL arguments to keep them for redirects. In the future matching on URL arguments might also be possible.
Header encoding changed from utf-8 to latin1 to support a port to Python 3. Bytestrings passed to the object stay untouched which makes it possible to have utf-8 cookies. This is a part where the Python 3 version will later change in that it will always operate on latin1 values.
Fixed a bug in the form parser that caused the last character to be dropped off if certain values in multipart data are used.
Multipart parser now looks at the part-individual content type header to override the global charset.
Introduced mimetype and mimetype_params attribute for the file storage object.
Changed FileStorage filename fallback logic to skip special filenames that Python uses for marking special files like stdin.
Introduced more HTTP exception classes.
call_on_close now can be used as a decorator.
Support for redis as cache backend.
Support for the RFC 5789 PATCH method.
New custom routing parser and better ordering.
Removed support for is_behind_proxy. Use a WSGI middleware instead that rewrites the REMOTE_ADDR according to your setup. Also see the
werkzeug.contrib.fixers.ProxyFixfor a drop-in replacement.
Added cookie forging support to the test client.
Added support for host based matching in the routing system.
Switched from the default ‘ignore’ to the better ‘replace’ unicode error handling mode.
The builtin server now adds a function named ‘werkzeug.server.shutdown’ into the WSGI env to initiate a shutdown. This currently only works in Python 2.6 and later.
Headers are now assumed to be latin1 for better compatibility with Python 3 once we have support.
Added accept_json property analogous to accept_html on the
werkzeug.utils.import_string()now fails with much better error messages that pinpoint to the problem.
(bugfix release, released on April 23th 2010)
renamed the attribute implicit_seqence_conversion attribute of the request object to implicit_sequence_conversion.
(bugfix release, released on April 13th 2010)
heavily improved local objects. Should pick up standalone greenlet builds now and support proxies to free callables as well. There is also a stacked local now that makes it possible to invoke the same application from within itself by pushing current request/response on top of the stack.
routing build method will also build non-default method rules properly if no method is provided.
added proper IPv6 support for the builtin server.
windows specific filesystem session store fixes. (should now be more stable under high concurrency)
fixed a NameError in the session system.
fixed a bug with empty arguments in the werkzeug.script system.
fixed a bug where log lines will be duplicated if an application uses
added secure password hashing and checking functions.
HEAD is now implicitly added as method in the routing system if GET is present. Not doing that was considered a bug because often code assumed that this is the case and in web servers that do not normalize HEAD to GET this could break HEAD requests.
the script support can start SSL servers now.
Released on Feb 19th 2010, codename Hammer.
removed pending deprecations
sys.path is now printed from the testapp.
fixed an RFC 2068 incompatibility with cookie value quoting.
FileStoragenow gives access to the multipart headers.
cached_property.writeable has been deprecated.
MapAdapter.match()now accepts a return_rule keyword argument that returns the matched Rule instead of just the endpoint
routing.Map.bind_to_environ()raises a more correct error message now if the map was bound to an invalid WSGI environment.
added support for SSL to the builtin development server.
Response objects are no longer modified in place when they are evaluated as WSGI applications. For backwards compatibility the fix_headers function is still called in case it was overridden. You should however change your application to use get_wsgi_headers if you need header modifications before responses are sent as the backwards compatibility support will go away in future versions.
append_slash_redirect()no longer requires the QUERY_STRING to be in the WSGI environment.
request and response objects have a default __repr__ now.
builtin data structures can be pickled now.
the form data parser will now look at the filename instead the content type to figure out if it should treat the upload as regular form data or file upload. This fixes a bug with Google Chrome.
improved performance of make_line_iter and the multipart parser for binary uploads.
fixed a path quoting bug in EnvironBuilder that caused PATH_INFO and SCRIPT_NAME to end up in the environ unquoted.
werkzeug.BaseResponse.freeze()now sets the content length.
for unknown HTTP methods the request stream is now always limited instead of being empty. This makes it easier to implement DAV and other protocols on top of Werkzeug.
multi-value test-client posts from a standard dictionary are now supported. Previously you had to use a multi dict.
rule templates properly work with submounts, subdomains and other rule factories now.
deprecated non-silent usage of the
added support for IRI handling to many parts of Werkzeug.
development server properly logs to the werkzeug logger now.
fixed a querystring quoting bug in
added fallback_mimetype to
BaseResponse.iter_encoded()’s charset parameter.
added better __repr__ of
import_string accepts unicode strings as well now.
development server doesn’t break on double slashes after the host name.
better __repr__ and __str__ of
test client works correctly with multiple cookies now.
werkzeug.routing.Mapnow has a class attribute with the default converter mapping. This helps subclasses to override the converters without passing them to the constructor.
improved the session support for more efficient session storing on the filesystem. Also added support for listing of sessions currently stored in the filesystem session store.
werkzeug no longer utilizes the Python time module for parsing which means that dates in a broader range can be parsed.
the wrappers have no class attributes that make it possible to swap out the dict and list types it uses.
werkzeug debugger should work on the appengine dev server now.
the URL builder supports dropping of unexpected arguments now. Previously they were always appended to the URL as query string.
profiler now writes to the correct stream.
(bugfix release for 0.5, released on July 9th 2009)
fixed boolean check of
url routing system properly supports unicode URL rules now.
file upload streams no longer have to provide a truncate() method.
ImmutableTypeConversionDict.copy()return mutable shallow copies.
fixed a bug with the make_runserver script action.
MutiDict.iteritems()now accept an argument to return a pair for each value of each key.
the multipart parser works better with hand-crafted multipart requests now that have extra newlines added. This fixes a bug with setuptools uploads not handled properly (#390)
fixed some minor bugs in the atom feed generator.
fixed a bug with client cookie header parsing being case sensitive.
fixed a not-working deprecation warning.
fixed package loading for
fixed a bug in the secure cookie that made server-side expiration on servers with a local time that was not set to UTC impossible.
fixed console of the interactive debugger.
Released on April 24th, codename Schlagbohrer.
requires Python 2.4 now
fixed a bug in
CharsetAcceptthat work like the regular
Acceptbut have extra special normalization for mimetypes and charsets and extra convenience methods.
switched the serving system from wsgiref to something homebrew.
Clientnow supports cookies.
fixersmodule with various fixes for webserver bugs and hosting setup side-effects.
moved LimitedStream from the contrib package into the regular werkzeug one and changed the default behavior to raise exceptions rather than stopping without warning. The old class will stick in the module until 0.6.
implemented experimental multipart parser that replaces the old CGI hack.
url_decode()now accept a separator argument to switch between & and ; as pair separator. The magic switch is no longer in place.
all form data parsing functions as well as the
BaseRequestobject have parameters (or attributes) to limit the number of incoming bytes (either totally or per field).
request objects are now enforced to be read only for all collections.
added many new collection classes, refactored collections in general.
test support was refactored, semi-undocumented werkzeug.test.File was replaced by
EnvironBuilderwas added and unifies the previous distinct
BaseRequest.from_values(). They all work the same now which is less confusing.
officially documented imports from the internal modules as undefined behavior. These modules were never exposed as public interfaces.
removed FileStorage.__len__ which previously made the object falsy for browsers not sending the content length which all browsers do.
SharedDataMiddlewareuses wrap_file now and has a configurable cache timeout.
added passthrough_errors to run_simple.
MultiDictcopies now instead of revealing internal lists to the caller for getlist and iteration functions that return lists.
added support for extra_files in
(Bugfix release, released on January 11th 2009)
werkzeug.contrib.cache.Memcached accepts now objects that implement the memcache.Client interface as alternative to a list of strings with server addresses. There is also now a GAEMemcachedCache that connects to the Google appengine cache.
explicitly convert secret keys to bytestrings now because Python 2.6 no longer does that.
url_encode and all interfaces that call it, support ordering of options now which however is disabled by default.
the development server no longer resolves the addresses of clients.
Fixed a typo in werkzeug.test that broke File.
Map.bind_to_environ uses the Host header now if available.
Fixed BaseCache.get_dict (#345)
werkzeug.test.Client can now run the application buffered in which case the application is properly closed automatically.
Fixed Headers.set (#354). Caused header duplication before.
Fixed Headers.pop (#349). default parameter was not properly handled.
Fixed UnboundLocalError in create_environ (#351)
Headers is more compatible with wsgiref now.
Template.render accepts multidicts now.
dropped support for Python 2.3
Released on November 23rd 2008, codename Schraubenzieher.
Client supports an empty data argument now.
fixed a bug in Response.application that made it impossible to use it as method decorator.
the session system should work on appengine now
the secure cookie works properly in load balanced environments with different cpu architectures now.
CacheControl.no_cache and CacheControl.private behavior changed to reflect the possibilities of the HTTP RFC. Setting these attributes to None or True now sets the value to “the empty value”. More details in the documentation.
fixed werkzeug.contrib.atom.AtomFeed.__call__. (#338)
BaseResponse.make_conditional now always returns self. Previously it didn’t for post requests and such.
fixed a bug in boolean attribute handling of html and xhtml.
added graceful error handling to the debugger pastebin feature.
added a more list like interface to Headers (slicing and indexing works now)
fixed a bug with the __setitem__ method of Headers that didn’t properly remove all keys on replacing.
added remove_entity_headers which removes all entity headers from a list of headers (or a Headers object)
the responses now automatically call remove_entity_headers if the status code is 304.
fixed a bug with Href query parameter handling. Previously the last item of a call to Href was not handled properly if it was a dict.
headers now support a pop operation to better work with environ properties.
(bugfix release, released on June 24th 2008)
fixed a security problem with werkzeug.contrib.SecureCookie.
Released on June 14th 2008, codename EUR325CAT6.
added support for redirecting in url routing.
added Authorization and AuthorizationMixin
added WWWAuthenticate and WWWAuthenticateMixin
added _get_current_object method to LocalProxy objects
MultiDict, CombinedMultiDict, Headers, and EnvironHeaders raise special key errors now that are subclasses of BadRequest so if you don’t catch them they give meaningful HTTP responses.
added support for alternative encoding error handling and the new HTTPUnicodeError which (if not caught) behaves like a BadRequest.
added ETag support to the SharedDataMiddleware and added an option to disable caching.
fixed is_xhr on the request objects.
fixed error handling of the url adapter’s dispatch method. (#318)
fixed bug with SharedDataMiddleware.
EnvironHeaders contain content-type and content-length now
url_encode treats lists and tuples in dicts passed to it as multiple values for the same key so that one doesn’t have to pass a MultiDict to the function.
improved Python 2.3 support
run_simple accepts use_debugger and use_evalex parameters now, like the make_runserver factory function from the script module.
the environ_property is now read-only by default
it’s now possible to initialize requests as “shallow” requests which causes runtime errors if the request object tries to consume the input stream.
Released Feb 14th 2008, codename Faustkeil.
Added AnyConverter to the routing system.
Exceptions have a
get_response()method that return a response object
fixed the path ordering bug (#293), thanks Thomas Johansson
BaseReporterStream is now part of the werkzeug contrib module. From Werkzeug 0.3 onwards you will have to import it from there.
RequestRedirect is now a subclass of HTTPException and uses a 301 status code instead of 302.
url_encode and url_decode can optionally treat keys as unicode strings now, too.
werkzeug.script has a different caller format for boolean arguments now.
renamed lazy_property to cached_property.
added is_* properties to request objects.
added empty() method to routing rules.
added extends to Headers.
added dump_cookie and parse_cookie.
added as_tuple to the Client.
the HTTPExceptions accept an argument description now which overrides the default description.
the MapAdapter has a default for path info now. If you use bind_to_environ you don’t have to pass the path later.
the wsgiref subclass werkzeug uses for the dev server does not use direct sys.stderr logging any more but a logger called “werkzeug”.
refactored request and response objects into base objects, mixins and full featured subclasses that implement all mixins.
added simple user agent parser
werkzeug’s routing raises MethodNotAllowed now if it matches a rule but for a different method.
many fixes and small improvements
Released on Dec 9th 2007, codename Wictorinoxger.